The Three Macular Carotenoids: Complementary Functions of Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-Zeaxanthin

JAMES STRINGHAM

Lutein and the two zeaxanthin isomers, RR-zeaxanthin (3R,3’R-zeaxanthin) and meso-zeaxanthin (3R,3’S-RS-zeaxanthin) are the only three carotenoids found in the eye, specifically in the macula of the retina (Bone et al. 1997). RR-zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin are both considered zeaxanthin; they differ only in the spatial orientation of the hydroxyl group on the C3’ chiral position (Nolan et al. 2013 – see… More →